KAZAKHSTAN

KAZAKHSTAN

A country filled with rich history, Kazakhstan is a country located in the heart of the Eurasian continent. It was a former soviet republic and extends from the Altai mountain at the east where it shares borders with both china and Russia to the Caspian Sea in the west.

When Compared to an earlier 1993 constitution, the new constitution of 1995 increases the executive powers of the president and reduces those of the legislature. It also places a lot less emphasis on the protection of human rights. The new constitution however does not let the legislature control the budget or its agenda, they can also not initiate any changes to the constitution, in other words they have no power over the executive branch.

In a situation where the legislature fails to pass an "urgent" bill brought to it by the president, within 30 days, the constitution allows him to issue it by decree.

While the president has unlimited powers to dissolve the legislature at any time, the legislature can only remove the president for disability or high treason.

Later on in October 1998, without any kind of public debate, the legislature quickly rubber- stamped 19 new constitutional amendments and announced to the public of an early presidential

Election and also increasing the presidential term from five to seven years. They also lifted the 65-year age limit on all governmental service.

However, In Uralsk the (Western part of Kazakhstan) and Petropavlovsk (Northern Kazakhstan)

there are communities popularly known as Cossack obshchinas, agitating for autonomous status. Denied registry by Kazakhstan, many of them are active in Cossack obshchinas across the border in Russia, around there Cossacks have the right to own and maintain military organizations and also carry weapons.

Current issues facing the Kazakhstan government includes:

  • developing a cohesive and standard national identity
  • expanding the current development of the country's vast energy resources and increased exporting to world markets
  • strengthen relations with neighboring countries and other foreign powers.

Before the country gained its independence, Kazakhstan's played a major role in the manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer, rolled metal, radio cables, aircraft wires, train bearings, tractors, and bulldozers. And the later years The country was also known to have had a well-developed network of factories that produced more than 11% of the Soviet Union's military goods and weaponries.

Mostly dominated by state- owned enterprises the centrally planned economy of Kazakhstan's has been considerably, if not completely, privatized and reoriented to become a market economy.

The Kazakhstan economy is very well-endowed with large regions of arable land and rich reserves of coal, oil, and different kinds of rare metals.

Animal herding was the strength of the then nomadic Kazakh population before their absorption

into the Soviet Union. However, grains, meat. and wool production as remained an important agricultural product in the country.

An invigorated energy sector supported by large foreign investment has helped to boost the economy's strong performance, but not leaving out good economic reforms and even better harvests have also played an important role too.

In 1996, the government settled an agreement for the 1,580-km (990-mi) Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) the pipeline was to run from the western Tengiz oil field to the Black Sea. The CPC was officially completed and opened on 27 November 2001. Large Foreign investment focused mainly in Kazakhstan's oil industry has helped boost its production, with predictions of the country becoming one the world's major producers at more than 3.5 million barrels per day. Later on in January 2001, the president passed a decree that establishes National Fund for the purpose of protecting the country’s economy from the effects of oil price swings.

The huge region of Kazakhstan is rich in both minerals and fertile lands. The processing plants built for the mining and processing of coal, oil and gas, ferrous and non-ferrous metals all play an important role in the growth of the national economy. The main minerals present in the country are;

  1. Ores of nonferrous and ferrous metals
  2. Large deposit of uranium like chromium, cadmium, vanadium, bismuth, kaolin, fluorine, iron, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphor, copper, potassium, and cobalt,
  3. The country also has more than 160 oil and gas fields, including the largest one - Tengiz and Korolev fields.
  4. Kazakhstan has more than 160,000 tons of natural coal resources at 155 sites.
  5. The iron ore resources present in Kazakhstan are counted among the world’s cleanest and also free of impurities.
  6. Kazakhstan is also the world’s second largest owner of phosphorite reserves (after Russia).
  7. Kazakhstan is also the world’s leading aluminum producers.
  8. Kazakhstan has substantial resources of salt and construction timber.

 

Kazakhstan is classified as the most economically developed country from all the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Kazakhstan's economic projections are even more promising because of its vast energy and mineral resources, as well as the countries low foreign debts, and a well-trained work force. There is more Western private investment in Kazakhstan than anywhere else in Central Asia.

Because of the widespread ranges in elevation in the country, there are varied variations in both temperature and rainfall.

The country however, is known to have a more arid continental kind of climate.

In January, the temperature is usually around -5°c (23°f).

Kazakhstan is plagued with several important environmental issues. It was once the site for the

former Soviet Union's nuclear weapons testing programs, large areas of the nation have been exposed to different high levels of nuclear radiation, and there is a significant radioactive pollution. The nation 30 uranium mines also add to the problem of uncontrolled discharge of radioactivity. Kazakhstan has also search for international support to convince China to stop testing its atomic bombs near its territory, because of the dangerous fallout that are usually seen after such testing.

Mishandling of irrigation projects has also caused the level of the Aral Sea to drop by 13 m, decreasing its size by about 50%. The change in size has also changed the climate in the immediate area and exposed about three million hectares of land that are now prone to erosion.

Air pollution in Kazakhstan is also another very significant environmental problem facing the country. High reports of Acid rain damaging the environment within the country and also affecting

neighboring countries has been very common. earlier in 1992 Kazakhstan had the world's 14th highest level of “industrial carbon dioxide emissions”.

Pollution from industries and different agricultural sources has also damaged the nation's drinkable water supply, with lots of river contamination by industrial metals up to levels unacceptable.

There is also the Pollution of the Caspian Sea.

The Republic of Kazakhstan is known as a multinational state, inhabited by more than 120 different nationalities. The main religion in this region is Islam, but the Kazakhs show total tolerance towards any other religion of the people living in the countries territory, such as Christianity, Judaism, etc.

The country has constructed many mosques and churches in current years.

About 33% of the population are Eastern Orthodox. About 2% of the population are Roman Catholic. There are also several different Protestant congregations, including Lutherans, Jehovah 's Witnesses, Pentecostals, and Seventh-Day Adventists and more. There is also the presence of a small Jewish community in the region.

The constitution however, provides for total freedom of religion, but there are still some restrictions put in place on nontraditional religious groups.

All religious groups are expected to register with the government to obtain legal status in the country. However, some groups, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, have been totally denied this legal status by the government.

Kazakhstan offers a very wide variety of natural scenes to the stronger traveler. These ranges from the forests and mountain ranges to the vast steppes where Kazakh nomads still live in tents called yurts and race thoroughbred horses and camels.

The old capital, Almaty ("mountain of apples"), has no historic allures but it is an attractive city with tree-lined streets, parks, fountains, and canals giving it a more European flavor.

In the winter periods, ice skating is popular on its many waterways.

You can get direct Air service to Kazakhstan with flights heading to Almaty from Ankara,

Frankfurt, Hamburg, and other cities, as well as frequent daily flights coming in from Moscow. Kazakhstan is open to all business travelers and tourists. And recorded a spike in tourists in flow into the country in early 2003, where about 3.2 million tourists visited Kazakhstan.

A passport, visa, and onward or return ticket are required for all visitors wishing to enter Kazakhstan. Also Visitors staying more than 30 days must have proof of a negative HIV test.

The countries constitution declares Kazakh to be the state language and requires the president to be a fluent Kazakh speaker.

Kazakh is originally a Turkic language written in Cyrillic script with many special letters common to it. Modern Kazakh however, utilizes many words gotten from Russian, Arabic, Persian, Mongol, Chinese, Tatar, and Uzbek to make the language more extensive in nature. Only about 64% of all Kazakhs can speak the language effectively, while Almost everyone can speak the Russian language, which was granted special status as the "language of interethnic communication" and is mostly and widely used in all official business.

USD 150 per month
INR 25,000 (Ex Delhi)

Native Kazakhs is a mix of both Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region as early as the 13th century. The two tribes were rarely united as a single nation.

The area was later conquered by Russia in the 18th century and Kazakhstan then became a Soviet

Republic in 1936.

During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural was intensified in this region due to the abundance of very fertile lands, the agricultural program was called "Virgin Lands", and other Soviet citizens from other countries were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures.

This large influx of immigrants most of them being Russians, affected the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber the natives. Independence of Kazakhstan has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate back to their country of origin.

The country is also the world’s ninth largest country. The Kazakhstan territory alone is larger than all the twelve countries of the European Union combined together.

Kazakhstan shares borders with China, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and their former masters Russia.

To better help the government in Administration Kazakhstan is divided mainly into 14 regions, 84 cities, 159 districts, 241 towns and 2,042 auls (villages).

The Kazakh territory also as 8,500 rivers flowing through it into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea and the Arctic Ocean.

Kazakhstan also has 48,000 lakes.

The major parts of Kazakhstan are deserts and steppes. But The rest of the area is covered by

semi-deserts and forests.

There are more than 55 institutions of higher education and three universities present in the country.

The top ones are;

  • The University of Kazak Al-Farabi State University which is taking the lead role was founded in 1934 and offers courses in “history, philosophy, economics, sociology, journalism, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and geography”.
  • The Karaganda State University was founded later on in 1972 and offers “philosophy, economics, law, history, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology”.
  • There is also The Technical University at Karaganda Metallurgical Combine was founded in 1964 and has faculties teaching “metallurgy, mechanics and technology, and chemical technology”.

A country filled with rich history, Kazakhstan is a country located in the heart of the Eurasian continent. It was a former soviet republic and extends from the Altai mountain at the east where it shares borders with both china and Russia to the Caspian Sea in the west.

  • CapitalASTANA
  • CurrencyTenge (KZT)
  • Population2,724,900
  • Area2,724,900 Sq Km
  • Major ReligionIslam, Christianity
  • GDPUSD 226 Billion (Nominal)
  • Per CapitaUSD 12,950
  • Time ZoneUTC + 5 / +6
  • ISD Code+7-6, +7-7

Key Universities