Armenia was a member of the former Soviet republic. The country is located in the mountainous Caucasus region between Asia and Europe. It is also Among the earliest Christian civilizations in the whole region, it’s dotted by very old religious sites including the Greco-Roman Temple of

Garni and 4th-century Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the headquarters of the Armenian Church. Khor

Virap Monastery is also a pilgrimage site for Christian faithful’s.

Armenia adopted a post-Soviet constitution by public referendum on the 5th of July 1995 by 68% of the voters. The constitution provides for a strong presidential system of government with a weak legislative system, thereby granting the president power to appoint and remove the prime minister, judges, and prosecutors with no other say or confirmation from any branch of the government. It also gives him abundant grounds for dissolving the legislature, declaring martial law, and limiting the human rights by declaring a state of emergency at any time of his choosing.

The president is elected and serves a five- year term. While The prime minister is nominated by the president and is subject to legislative approval. The prime minister with presidential and

legislative approval then appoints the Cabinet of Ministers.

The countries National Assembly has 131 members, who serve four-year terms; 75 members

are elected by party list, and 56 by direct vote.

The country also as a Constitutional Court which has the power to review the constitutionality of legislation, approves international agreements, and also settles all electoral disputes. However, its effectiveness is limited as It only accepts cases referred to it by the president, about two-thirds of the members of the legislature, or election-related cases brought by candidates in legislative or

presidential races. The president is in charge of appointing four of the nine judges of the Constitutional Court.

Before the earthquake occurred in 1988, Armenia exported trucks, tires and electronic instruments to other republics. However, a large number of these plants were destroyed by the earthquake. Armenia was also a chief producer of chemical products, 59% of them were being exported to other republics.

Armenia has the utmost number of specialists with higher education and second highest number of

scientists of all the other countries of the former Soviet republics. However, Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, industrial production has been relentlessly disrupted by political volatility and instability and also by the shortages of power supply.

Most of all Armenia's industry are idle or operating at a little of its capacity.

Economic blockades on Armenia by Turkey and Azerbaijan as part of the continuing disagreement over Nagorno-Karabakh have cut the Armenia country off from an old direct gas pipeline from Azerbaijan, as well as prohibited it from partaking in any of the east to west pipelines being built in the post-Soviet era. The only alternative Armenia had was to pursue a gas pipeline from Iran delivering gas.

Light industries dominates the Armenia's industrial sector and is striking for its diversity. The leading industries in the country of recent includes:

  • metal-cutting machine tools,
  • forging-pressing machines,
  • electric motors,
  • tires,
  • knitted wear,
  • hosiery,
  • shoes,
  • silk fabric,
  • chemicals,
  • trucks,
  • instruments,
  • microelectronics,
  • gem cutting
  • jewelry manufacture
  • software development,
  • food processing,
  • brandy.

However, most of the country's small and medium sized enterprises have all been privatized, prompting the recovery of industrial growth and development in the country.

As part of the earlier Soviet Union, the Armenian economy included largescale agro-industrial enterprises and a significant industrial sector that supplied machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods and services to other parts of the USSR in exchange for raw materials. Trading with its neighboring countries, on which Armenia heavily relied on to supplement its lack of natural resource, was jeopardized by the outburst of conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave in 1988, and also by political instability in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Things also came to a standstill, in December 1988, when a severe earthquake did considerable damage to Armenia's productive capacity, irritating its regional trade insufficiency. The physical damage of the earthquake had still not been repaired when the economy suffered the disintegration that accompanied the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.

With independence, the countries real GDP fell 60% from 1992–93, small-scale agriculture came to control places of the former agro-industrial complexes. Farmers planted grain, sugar beets, potatoes, and other vegetables, as well as grapes and other fruit.

The economy began to revitalize and grow at about an annual rate of 6% in the first nine months of 1999 but fell suddenly after disruptions following the hostage- takings and assassinations of the prime minister and the parliamentary speaker in October.

Armenia as climate ranging from subtropical to alpine-like in the mountains.

  • Temperature in midsummer is 25°c.
  • In midwinter, the mean temperature is 0°c

Rainfall is quite infrequent. The capital city receives about 33 cm of rain annually, although more rainfall occurs in the mountains.

Armenia is placed in what geographers call the Aral Caspian Lowland. The country has wide sandy deserts and low grassy plateaus. The region is also home to European bison, snow leopards,

cheetahs, and porcupines.

Armenia's topmost environmental problems resulted from natural disasters, pollution, and warfare. A strong earthquake in the region around 1988 resulted in 55,000 casualties. Radiations from the

meltdown of the nuclear reactor facility built at Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union also polluted the environment. The nation's soil has also been polluted by chemicals. the Hrazdan and Ares rivers have also been polluted. The war between Armenia and Azerbaijan has stressed the country's economy, limiting the amount of resources that can be devoted to environmental

preservation. It has also led to an energy blockade that has caused both legal and illegal deforestation as trees are cut for firewood. Yet another environmental hazard that has come into play is the restarting of the Metsamor nuclear power plant, without the safety systems recommended by the IAEA.

In 2005, about 90% of the population were ostensibly members of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Catholic churches, both Roman and Mekhitaris (Armenian Uniate), had an estimated follower’s population of about 180,000 adherents. The next largest group is the Yezidi, a Kurdish ethnic and religious group that practice a mixture of beliefs gotten from Islam,

Zoroastrianism, and animism; they had an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 members following.

There are Other Christian denominations which includes:

Pentecostals, Greek Orthodox, Jehovah 's Witnesses, the Armenian Evangelical Church, Baptists, Seventh-Day Adventists, the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints (Mormons).

Most Jews, Muslims, and Baha'is are located in Yerevan.

Armenia became a Christian country as early as in the 4th century ad. In 1991, the Law on

Freedom of worship established the total separation of church from the state but also granted the Armenian Apostolic Church status as the national church. All other religious denominations and

organizations outside of the Armenian Apostolic Church must be registered with the government in order to operate within the country. Those that are not registered are prohibited from publishing any kind of newspapers or magazines, sponsoring television or radio broadcasts, and also renting meeting space.

The 1997 amendments of the registration requirements raised the minimum number of adult members for any religious organization to qualify for registration from 50 to 200.

Although there is a shortage of resources in the country, Armenia has been investing a lot

in new hotels to increase tourism. Outdoor activities and décor seem to be the primary attractions in the region. Lake Sevan, currently the world's largest mountain lake, is a very popular summer tourist spot. The Tsakhador ski resort is also very popular and is opened all year round for skiing in the winter and hiking and picnicking the rest of the year.

Mt. Ararat, the said traditional site of the landing of Noah's Ark, is located along the border with Turkey but also a nice tourist site.

Yerevan, Armenia's capital, also boasts of theaters and casinos, some of the casinos in Argavand are popular with tourists and Albanian citizens.

In 2003, the country registered its first spike in the influx of tourist as there were about 206,000

visitor arrivals, as compared to 45,000 in 2000.

Armenian is spoken by about 97% of the country’s population. Armenian originally belongs to an independent branch of the Indo-European linguistic family. It is a language with a complicated

system of understanding. It is, rich in consonants, and has no grammatical gender. The

vocabulary includes many words gotten from the Persian language.

There are however two main dialects:

  • The East Armenian, which is also the official language of Armenia.
  • The West, or Turkish, Armenian.

The alphabet, patterned after the Persian and Greek letters, has about 38 characters present in it. Armenian literature dates back from the early 5th century ad.

Yezidi is spoken by not more than 1% of the entire population.

Russian and other various languages are spoken by the about 2%.

Minority groups in Armenia includes the Azeri, Russians, Ukrainians, Belarussians, Jews, Assyrians, Georgians, Greeks, and Yezidi Kurds. But as of 1993, most of the Azeri’s had totally

emigrated from Armenia.

INR 30,000 (Ex Delhi)

Armenia is an ancient land of rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes. The highest point in the country is Mount Aragats.

The country is bounded by

  • Georgia on the north,
  • Azerbaijan on the east,
  • Iran on the south,
  • Turkey on the west.

Armenia is also regarded as One of the world's oldest civilizations, the country once had Mount Ararat within its territories, which biblical tradition identifies as the mountain that Noah's ark rested upon after the flood. It was also the first country in the world to officially and completely embrace Christianity as its religion back in 300. A.D.

Throughout most of its very long history, Armenia has however, been always invaded by a succession of empires and different foreign powers. With this development Armenians became both diverse as well as fierce protectors of their culture and tradition.

Over the long centuries Armenia was conquered by the Greeks, Romans, Persians, Byzantines, Mongols, Arabs, Ottoman Turks, and Russians. Earlier on in the 16th century throughout the World War I, key portions of Armenia were controlled by their most brutal invader, the Ottoman Turks, under the Ottoman Turks the Armenians experienced discrimination, religious persecution, heavy taxation, and armed attacks. One of them occurred in response to Armenian nationalist stirrings, the Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in 1894 and 1896 to keep the region under their control. The most terrible massacre took place in April 1915 during World War I, when the

Turks ordered the banishment and transportation of the Armenian population to the deserts of Syria and Mesopotamia. According to the many historians, about 600,000 to 1.5 million Armenians perished in that desert or were murdered or died of starvation.

The size of the new Independent Armenia is only a percentage of historic Armenia, which at its

greatest level also included lands now taken over by Turkey, Iran, and Azerbaijan.

Since the early 1990s, growing emphasis has been placed on Armenian history and culture.

There are two universities in Yerevan the capital of the country:

  • the Yerevan State University (founded in 1919)
  • the State Engineering University of Armenia.

Seven other higher educational institutions are located in the capital too. There are also several other institutes of higher learning present throughout the country.

Armenia was a member of the former Soviet republic. The country is located in the mountainous Caucasus region between Asia and Europe. It is also Among the earliest Christian civilizations in the whole region, it’s dotted by very old religious sites including the Greco-Roman Temple of

Garni and 4th-century Etchmiadzin Cathedral, the headquarters of the Armenian Church. Khor

Virap Monastery is also a pilgrimage site for Christian faithful’s.

  • CapitalYerevan
  • CurrencyDram (AMD)
  • Population3 Million
  • Area29,743
  • Major ReligionChristianity
  • GDPUSD 10.75 Billion (Nominal)
  • Per CapitaUSD 3,595 (Nominal)
  • Time ZoneUTC + 4
  • ISD Code+374

Key Universities