CHINA

CHINA

The People's Republic of China (PRC), is also the third-largest country in the world. China, is an ancient, mysterious and beautiful land, which is always appealing to adventurous and foreign visitors. One of China's many secrets and greatest treasures is her long, rich history which it readily shares with anyone interested.

China is made up totally of 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 municipalities which are directly under the control of the Central Government, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao.

On the 4th of December 1982, China adopted its fourth constitution since 1949, which made the National People's Congress (NPC) the highest structure of state power, in which the legislative power of the country is bestowed. The constitution however specifies, that the congress is to function under the direction of the Chinese Communist Party, which is headed by the general secretary.

The NPC holds annual meetings that last for at least 2 weeks to discuss, review and agree on major new policy and future directions the country should take in order to adopt new laws, and also to approve the national budget submitted to it by the state council. Each of the congress comprises of more than 3,000 officials elected indirectly for a 5 years’ term.

Since the early 1980s, the NPC has slowly and continuously increased its function as a head and leader for discussion of issues instead of merely taking up the positon of bystander.

Democratic elections are always held at the village level, but anything above that level are totally forbidden. The only opposition party which is, China Democratic Party, is acknowledged by the CCP, but it doesn’t really hold any ground as it only exists in theory only.

Corruption, large amount of embezzlement, and bribery are all very normal aspects of contemporary Chinese political life. The government also owns all forms of media, and information distributing bodies which includes all television stations, the radio stations, and most of the newspapers. However, easy access to the Internet is very widespread in the country, especially in large cities and Western news channels can be easily reached.

There are 3 types of retail trade outlets in the country;

  • the periodic market,
  • the peddler,
  • the urban shop

These different kinds of trade outlets in the country constitutes the basis of the traditional commercial structure available. In early 1950s, a number of state trading companies were put up and established for production of commodities such as food grains, cotton, textiles, coal, some building materials, metals, different kinds of machinery, and medicines. These companies, which is also under the control of the countries Ministry of Commerce, have established lots of branch offices and retail stores throughout the country.

In the late 1960s, the Government began establishing lots of state- owned department stores and

cooperative retail outlets which immediately began replacing all private trade. But this move affected the development of the country which lead the government to fall back to a periodic open markets and supporting of private traders. Later on the government relaxed all domestic trading regulations in 1978 and began giving up its control of the market by progressively loosening or totally eliminating many of its former price controls; currently an estimated 90% of all retail sales are no longer controlled directly by the government.

During 1961–74 however, the yearly countries growth rate fell to about 6%, as a result of the troubles caused by the collapse of a major economic move called “the Great Leap Forward”. This also saw the withdrawal of Soviet technicians in mid-1960 and of high unemployment and work stoppages and transportation disruptions which brought on the Cultural Revolution

 

Traditional China was mostly focused on agricultural which it used to sustain itself even under harsh conditions like;

  • Natural calamities.
  • Revolution and civil disorder
  • Japanese invasion,
  • Gross economic neglect by the leaders

The first and most important task of the new PRC government was to restore the flow of natural resources throughout the region. And by the early 1950s, the government kept to its promises and had succeeded in stopping the massive starvation level present in the country. In other to achieve this the government brought Almost all means of production and distribution under state control.

Economic development was aided by the government importation of machinery and other industrial equipment needed for production from the former USSR and other East European countries, and in return for this, China exported agricultural produce to them.

There was also the discovery of mineral deposits that provided a major push toward the countries complete industrialization.

Modern China is the beneficiary to a large number of inventive civilization that pioneered in the development of lots of inventions like Major advances in rice hybridization and massive production, insecticides, better fertilizers, some biogas digesters for rural electrification, and lots of pollution control technology.

Other major research topics for development are;

  • high-energy physics
  • laser research
  • powerful computer memory chips
  • color television broadcasting technology
  • laser infrared devices

The PRC however, still relies very heavily on foreign investment and technology transfer from developed countries.

Most of China has a more continental climate, although it has an ocean coast, and temperatures and weather condition differ very much as you move across the country.

The northernmost Heilongjiang Province: has very long winters and short summers.

The Hainan Island in the south: is the exact opposite with short winters and very long summers.

The Huai River valley: also has distinctive seasonal changes, but is mostly known for its spring like weather.

China's massive size and exceptional geography only means that all travelers will need to pay extra care to the different kinds of climate and weather for their stay as they pack for the journey.

There are 3 major religions and faiths being practiced in china today, namely;

  • Confucianism
  • Buddhism
  • Taoism

They all have very long history in the country and are well established in China.

Chinese traditions are known to be a mixture of all three religions in one way or the other.

  1. Confucianism has no temples or house of worships and no religious organization but are mainly founded based on a code of ethics and philosophy which are; “piety, benevolence, fidelity, and justice” which every citizen is expected to live by.
  2. Taoism on the other hand is a native Chinese religion that was evolved from an early philosophy which was probably founded in the 6th century be by Lao-tzu (Laozi),
  3. Buddhism, was brought in from India during the reign of the Han dynasty.

Both Taoism and Buddhism are known to have very elaborate rituals which it carries out at different time in the day.

But some of these old religious habits of thought came under very strong attack around the time of the Cultural Revolution which saw the Suppression of all religious practices, the introduction of antireligious laws and the closure of temples, shrines, mosques, and churches, from the mid-1960s.

Most of the antireligious activity reduced in 1976, and the government resuscitated its Bureau of Religious Affairs in the country and enacted The constitution of 1982 which provides for freedom of belief and worship by the citizens; however, the government stills gets involved by restricting levels of religious practices acceptable and maintains a pronounced amount of control over the progress of various religious organizations.

As part of the new law by the government, all religious groups are required to register with the government in order to legally be allowed to express their faith and participate in worship. Many

groups however, still refuse to register, both out of outright protest for government policies and strict control over religion and also for fear of endangering the religious leaders by providing their names to government authorities.

This as lead to a term called "House churches," which are also illegal gathering of Christian faithful’s who are unregistered to any Christian group. They meet in homes of members or businesses for quick prayer meetings and Bible studies. These house churches are becoming very popular among the commoners and are now having difficulties still remaining hiding from security agents with the ever growing member’s population.

The Catholics have it worse than the rest, with Tensions between the Vatican and the

Chinese government much more restriction have been placed on all nation's Catholics.

The country prohibits the countries official Catholic church’s from recognizing and accepting the authority of the Pope but the Catholic faith refused to accept or acknowledge the countries ban. This has however, had a very major impact on the rise of the religion in the country.

Chinese refused to associate with foreigners earlier on but later the restrictions on tourism were eased to allow access by foreigners only on group tours in 1976 and later the government removed it totally in 1983, lifting the travel ban on individual tourist travel across the country.

Later on by 1985, there were over 244 Chinese cities and scenic spots officially opened to foreign tourists and the springing up of a number of resorts specifically designed for foreigner’s stay were in operation.

Here are some things you might need or do before you enter into china;

  • visitors to China must have a valid passport
  • you must also have a visa
  • health insurance
  • personal interviews may also be conducted once you arrive into the country.

The most visited and famous tourist attraction in China is the Great Wall, the construction

Of the Great Wall started as early as the 3rd century be and served as a barrier against northern invaders.

Other leading tourist attractions include;

  • the Imperial Palace also known and referred to as the Forbidden City, located in Beijing
  • the tombs of the Ming emperors
  • Hangzhou, with its famous beautiful West Lake and gardens
  • Shanghai, with its busy streets and well-stocked stores and superb cuisine
  • Xi'an, the excavations site of epic Qin dynasty
  • Guangzhou, the epicenter of Cantonese cooking, with a widespread Cultural Park.

Shanghai is still China's largest and most prosperous city. It is also fondly called "China's Gateway to the West" with a high Westernized culture very present in it. Some Famous attractions in the city includes the newly built Disneyland and the Bund.

The acceptable language in the country is the Standard

  • Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect),
  • Yue (Cantonese),
  • Wu (Shanghaies),
  • Minbei (Fuzhou),
  • Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese),
  • Xiang,
  • Gan,
  • Hakka dialects,

They are still other minority languages being spoken in the country but the Spoken Chinese basically falls into two major groups, which is separated roughly by a northeast-southwest line from the mouth of the Yangtze River to nearly the border of Vietnam.

To communicate in written Chinese language, one must have memorized thousands of Chinese characters. But Since the founding and the establishment of the PRC in 1949, new reforms of the

written language has been a major move the government. An even simplified system of writing, which reduces the number of strokes needed per character, has been adopted, and the language restructured so that anyone can read and write in it by just knowing the basic 2,000–3,000 characters

A number of systems have also been developed to help transcribe the Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet.

Out of the 55 recognized minority groups and religions in China, only Hui and Manchus use

Chinese as an everyday speaking language. More than 20 minorities ethnic group have their own different forms of writing for their own languages. Minority languages are allowed to be used in all state institutions in minority areas and are used as the language in all newspapers and books published in the locality.

INR 35,000 (Ex Delhi - Shanghai)

China's territory claims encompass several large islands, the most important of which is Hainan, located off the south coast. Other smaller islands include the reefs and islands of the South China Sea. As the third largest country in the world it contains A wide-ranging variety of terrain and climate in its different towns and cities and also shaping its numerous natural attractions.

Rich in a variety of possessions, plants, animals, and natural minerals, the land has raised countless generations of the Chinese people.

One of China's highest possessions is her long, very old and very rich history. The

first dynasty, the Xia Dynasty, was believed to have ruled the country as early as the 21st century BC. For 4,000 years, feudalism was the dominant trend in economic and cultural models and matters. Then, in 1911, Sun Yat-sen led a revolution that ended the rein of the monarchy. On October 1st, 1949, PRC was founded, and was fully named the 'People's Republic of China'. The country has ever since been developing both independently and vigorously. Even most recently, new reforms and policies has energized life in this country, opening-up the country for even more foreign investments.

China is also proud of her many inventions, the greatest of which are;

  • paper
  • gunpowder
  • printing
  • the compass.

Chinese arts and artifacts, which includes operas, painting, calligraphy, embroidery and silk wares are very unique to it, as well as Kung Fu, which have only started receiving a lot of popularity in

other parts of the world mainly due to their many Kung Fu movies which are really a must watch for any movie lover.

Chinese many culture for centuries, literature show cases the country's rich heritage. There is also the Chinese food, which is very popular and has been exported to every corner of the globe at one time or the other.

There are however government restrictions on public use of Internet, foreign media like movies, music, news, and sports but coverage are becoming more available and easily accessible in China as the country’s economy continues to grow and develop.

The People's Republic of China (PRC), is also the third-largest country in the world. China, is an ancient, mysterious and beautiful land, which is always appealing to adventurous and foreign visitors. One of China's many secrets and greatest treasures is her long, rich history which it readily shares with anyone interested.

  • CapitalBeijing
  • CurrencyRenminbi (CNY)
  • Population1250000
  • Area9,596,961 Sq Km
  • Major ReligionConfucianism, Buddhism, Taoism
  • GDPUSD 20.85 Trillion
  • Per CapitaUSD 15,095 (PPP)
  • Time ZoneUTC + 8
  • ISD Code+86

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